By Gary England
Following on from the profitable layout of the former variations, Fertility and Obstetrics within the Horse 3e is a pragmatic and hassle-free consultant to equine replica. From explaining the anatomy of the mares reproductive tract to detailing difficulties encountered while pregnant, it covers the entire significant components of shock in addition to together with the newest advancements in diagnostic systems and remedy ideas.
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Additional resources for Fertility and Obstetrics in the Horse (Library Vet Practice)
10 Late oestrus compared with early dioestrus It may be difﬁcult to distinguish between these two phases of the cycle without ultrasonographic examination. 40 Fertility and Obstetrics in the Horse • The cervix takes 2–4 days to change from oestrous to luteal and vice versa. • Uterine size and tone are similarly not diagnostic. • Follicles and CH/CLs may be difﬁcult to distinguish without ultrasound imaging. • Mare shows similar behavioural responses to stallion. • Ultrasound examination will demonstrate: ᭺ ᭺ presence of an echogenic CH in early dioestrus; presence of follicles in oestrus.
Provide a good level of lighting – although actual light levels required are • • • • • relatively low, it is sensible to use at least a 150-watt clear bulb in the centre of a 4 m ¥ 4 m box. Ideally there should be light falling on the eyes wherever the horse stands – avoid shadows cast by beams of partitions; high dark ceilings reﬂect very little light. It should be easy to read a newspaper wherever you stand in the box. Mares in poor body condition commencing the lighting regime take longer to respond than those in good body condition; the aim is to increase the level of nutrition and therefore the mare’s condition.
However in some circumstances ultrasound is not available and the techniques discussed previously in the chapter should enable the clinician to make conﬁdent diagnoses. A common difﬁculty is palpation of ovaries and interpretation of those ﬁndings. The following broad classiﬁcations of presentation may help with reaching a diagnosis. Two small ovaries Mare is acyclical • Anoestrus – cervix/uterus will be intermediate in size/tone. • Prepubertal – cervix/uterus will be intermediate in size/tone.