All Things Medieval: An Encyclopedia of the Medieval World by Ruth A. Johnston

By Ruth A. Johnston

All issues Medieval: An Encyclopedia of the Medieval World covers the widest definition of "medieval Europe" attainable, no longer by means of overlaying heritage within the conventional, textbook demeanour of directory wars, leaders, and demanding historical occasions, yet by means of proposing targeted alphabetical entries that describe the artifacts of medieval Europe. by way of analyzing the hidden fabric tradition and through proposing information regarding subject matters that few books cover—pottery, locks and keys, sneakers, weaving looms, barrels, toys, pets, ink, kitchen utensils, and masses more—readers get worthwhile insights into the character of lifestyles in the course of that point interval and area.

The heartland ecu areas resembling England, France, Italy, and Germany are coated greatly, and data concerning the gadgets of areas resembling Byzantium, Muslim Spain, and Scandinavia also are integrated. for every subject of fabric tradition, the access considers the entire scope of the medieval period—roughly 500-1450—to supply the reader a ancient standpoint of comparable traditions or innovations and describes the craftsmen and instruments that produced it.

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A Guide to Western Historical Scripts from Antiquity to 1600. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993. Drogin, Marc. Medieval Calligraphy: Its History and Technique. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1989. Pollington, Stephen. Rudiments of Runelore. Hockwold, UK: Anglo-Saxon Books, 1998. Yardeni, Ada. The Book of Hebrew Script: History, Paleography, Script Styles, Calligraphy, and Design. London: British Library, 2003. Animals During the Middle Ages, the word animal meant any living thing, human or nonhuman.

Guild regulations prevented arms from being sold in large amounts on the open market so that craftsmen could retain control over their wares, but no single craftsman could fill these large orders. Determined merchants found ways around the guild rules or simply flouted them. Large multinational corporations with stockholders grew up in the arms trade. In the 14th and 15th centuries, kings, dukes, and earls spent a great deal on armor that would stand out from the rest of their knights. Sometimes the armor was ceremonial, and sometimes it was really intended for war.

Their purpose was to ward off arrows and some blows, but they could easily be shattered with an ax, and some Vikings ran through more than one shield in a battle. The shields were about the size of a pizza—14 inches to 30 inches at the largest. They had a hole cut in the center large enough to fit a hand. A metal boss covered this hole; it had a handgrip bar at the back. It was nearly cone-shaped, with a point to deflect blows. Very few wooden shields have survived, but many shield bosses have been found in pagan graves.

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