A Social History of England, 1200-1500 by Rosemary Horrox, W. Mark Ormrod

By Rosemary Horrox, W. Mark Ormrod

What used to be lifestyles fairly like in England within the later center a long time? This accomplished advent explores the complete breadth of English lifestyles and society within the interval 1200-1500. establishing with a survey of historiographical and demographic debates, the e-book then explores the valuable issues of later medieval society, together with the social hierarchy, lifestyles in cities and the geographical region, spiritual trust, and sorts of person and collective id. Clustered round those subject matters a sequence of authoritative essays increase our figuring out of different vital social and cultural gains of the interval, together with the adventure of battle, paintings, legislation and order, adolescence and outdated age, ritual, commute and delivery, and the improvement of writing and interpreting. Written in an available and fascinating demeanour via a world crew of major students, this e-book is fundamental either as an advent for college kids and as a source for experts.

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If a lord’s tenants were judged to be unfree, the royal courts would have no cognisance of these matters, leaving such tenants to face their lord alone. 3 4 W. J. , The Mirror of Justices (Selden Society, VIII, 1895), p. 79. For discussion of the extent to which these burdens were modified in practice, see below pp. 212–13. 34 Peter Coss By no means all peasants were unfree. In the second half of the thirteenth century, somewhere in the region of one-third of all rural tenants were free, though there were significant regional variations.

Prowd in goinge, standyng and syttynge’, ‘grym in spekynge, heynes [heinous] in berynge . . sory in blamynge, loth to be undernome [reproved]’. They ‘for pryde, deyneth noght to speke with a pore man, ne unnethes [nor scarcely] to loke on him. And if thei speketh with him, hit schal be overthwerte [askance] and despitousliche [scornfully]’. Pride of ancestry is a major factor in all of this. But the high-born were by no means the only culprits. People suffered as much, if not more, from the airs and graces assumed by bailiffs and the like.

Freedom was by no means an abstraction. 4 These disabilities, moreover, were regarded by the royal courts as tests of villeinage. They included compulsory labour services performed by tenants on their lord’s demesne as a condition of tenure, and involved both weekly work and so-called boon works at peak times of the year. They included the payment of heriot (death duty); payment on the marriage of a daughter, and sometimes of a son, known as merchet; payment of a fine if a daughter was found guilty of fornication or became pregnant out of wedlock (leyrwite); payment of toll (a licence fee for the sale of stock); and payment of an annual aid or tallage.

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